I am the founder of a Scottish company that links international people to good contacts in Malawi. Yesterday we launched the website for it which is esafrican.com.
If you have any thoughts then let me know.
Recently I was reading something about how language affects the way that people think. I had the impression that what I was reading and my initial thoughts on it were nothing but the scratching of the surface of something quite deep and profound.
My Chichewa teacher often mentions that Chichewa is a relational language. In my one-to-one Chichewa lessons the single most interesting point for me was the relationship between language and culture. Another thing I was learning about in my Chichewa courses was grammar. I don’t mean Chichewa grammar – I mean grammar in general. Readers of this blog will be shocked and saddened (but not surprised I am guessing) to learn that I was never formally taught grammar at school. In no English lesson at school was I properly taught grammar. I think it is called modern education.
Anyway – I am being side-tracked.
This post is supposed to be about language and how people think about things. One obvious thing about Chichewa and the Bantu language group in general is the importance of greetings and the way the relationship between two people is indicated in the options that they choose from the language when they talk to each other. There is respect at one end of the spectrum and either an absence of respect (or familiarity) at the other end. There is quite a lot you can do in various ways to position what you say towards one or other end of that spectrum. Malawians I have discussed this with do suggest to me that English ‘feels like’ a language ‘without respect’. Anyway – that is not the main point that I want to make.
I want to talk about nouns and how the noun in the sentence …changes everything. Well, perhaps it does not quite change everything (literally), but the noun affects a lot of other things in the sentence. This is because nouns belong to one of several different noun classes. Depending on the noun class that you are using this affects so much of how you should use grammar in the rest of the sentence.
One thing that the noun class affects are numbers. Numbers do not really exist entirely in the abstract – in other words the word for ‘two’ changes slightly depending on whether you are talking about ‘two people’ or ‘two rhinos’. Two people is anthu awiri. Two rhinos is zipembere ziwiri. In these example the prefix zi- or a- is used in front of -wiri for the number (if it is greater than one) – but there are many noun classes. Of course the Chichewa for rhinos (zipembere) or rhino (chipembere) are not the most commonly used nouns and sadly there is far less need to use these words than once in the past. More imporantantly the word for ‘thing’ or ‘things’ (chinthu or zinthu) belong to that noun class (the chi-zi noun class that the words for rhino(s) belongs to). What this practically means is that you in the language you can imply the kind of noun you are referring to without actually mentioning the noun itself. So for example you can say that ‘things are going ok’ or ‘the people are fine’ without mentioning the actual nouns ‘things’ and ‘people’.
So someone might say to you ‘zikuyenda?’ by which they mean ‘how are things going?’ but all that has literally been said is the word for ‘going’ (present continuing tense) with a prefix zi- which implies that ‘things’ are being referred to. Of course in a different and quite unusual context it could mean something quite different. Normally, everyone understands it to mean ‘things’ however in the context of a situation where everyone is clearly thinking about a different noun it could refer to something much more specific than ‘things’ in general. So for example if you and others were silently watching rhinos walking past and then after a while someone said ‘Zikuyenda?’ the meaning (based on the context) would be – ‘the rhinos are going well’ or something a bit like that.
If you wanted to say ‘How is everything going?’ more fully you would say ‘kodi zinthu zonse zikuyenda?’ although ‘Zinthu zonse zilibwanje?’ (how is everything?) is more common I think. ‘How is everyone’ is different – you would say ‘anthu onse alibwanje?’
This is not intended as a language lesson – it is intended to be an example that shows how things in the sentence change depending on the relationship to the noun in the sentence. Can you see that there is less of the letter ‘z’ when talking about people rather than things?
Is this part of what is meant by Chichewa being a relational language? Does the fact that the word for a number exists in relation to the noun and not so much in the abstract make a difference? Does this affect how people think about the abstract and apply it to particular or different things? e.g. is the abstract idea altered quite fundamentally depending on what (noun) is being thought about? Does the context and its relationship to surrounding factors trump the abstract or fundamentally alter the way the abstract idea is implemented? The answer from me is ‘I don’t know.’ However, I can think of examples of where ‘common sense’ is applied based on the situation where in my own country there would be a much more kafkaesque adherence to a remote rule that makes no sense to the situation. I am sure however that indicating respect (or not) and the importance of greetings and relationships does affect how the language influences the way people think about things and get on with each other.
Of course I am sure that these sorts of things apply to all languages and language groups. I am sure that language does affect how people think about things and each other and how they interact. As I said earlier – I think I just have an inkling of this and the subject is probably a lot deeper than people typically realise.
However, I am sure also that a visitor can learn to understand the cultural conventions even without learning the language fully. The language is an indicator of how people interact and do things and think about things. One can observe customs and social norms and ways of doing things even without knowing the language.
Because I think it is a good example I keep on going back to David Livingstone and how well liked and respected he was. Interestingly, he had a lot of fallings out with his fellow Europeans… How he would approach a village and the interactions with the local chiefs and headmen showed that this very perceptive and observant man understood and interacted according to the accepted way of doing things. Some later (but also early) Scottish missionaries were following in his footsteps – and really taking time waiting outside a village where there were potentially difficult relationships to be smoothed over. At that time the new British colonial authorities thought that these Scots were wasting time and got impatient with them. I heard recently about how a new western expat boss was puzzled when he realised that visitors had arrived outside of his office and were seated and waiting. ‘This guy obviously did not read David Livingstone’s journals’ I thought.
Malawians are polite, patient and gentle in their initial meetings with each other. Of course people who know each other well (think young workmen who interact and joke with each other every day) will of course yell ‘Iwe!’ (‘you’ – impolite) at each other from a distance. In other instances loudly and expressively greeting each other from a distance (perhaps in a latin style) – especially if communicating with someone senior to yourself – feels quite..atypical.
I was very impressed at how quickly my (latin) sister-in-law picked up a bit of Chichewa. I was fascinated, and vaguely disturbed, by the way she combined Chichewa with the typical expressive latin style. Her native language (closely related to Italian) and country use a lot of gestures and she herself is a particularly expressive person. I remember her loudly and abruptly greeting people from a distance in Chichewa (including Malawi’s most senior, respected and legendary musician – who is a old family friend). I don’t think it matters, and I think people were very happy to hear her use Chichewa – but it was a bit of a shock to the system to experience the Latin style combined with the Chichewa language for the first time in my experience.
(I think any Malawian who reads this and knows and remembers my sister-in-law will politely but firmly inform me that my sister-in-law was well liked and that Malawians are very tolerant and receptive towards unusual foreign ways of doing things).
So what is point of this whole post? Well, my point is generally that in relations between outsiders and Malawians it does pay to at least get to know and understand a bit of the culture.
What is at the back of my mind about this is that societies work in different ways to each other. Looking at one thing that happens in isolation to the whole can be confusing. Also, I think, if you transplant something in isolation from one society to another then it might not work so well in that different context. That does not mean that societies should not learn from each other…
The way DC Scott thought about it was that his job as an early missionary was to bring the bible and translate it (and modern medicine and education) and then let the people work out their own ‘African Christian Civilisation’ themselves and not try to transplant ‘European Christian Civilisation’ where it would not work. That was the general thinking of the very early Scottish missionaries and it kept on bringing them into conflict with other whites (like the colonial authorities).
What I am not saying, and what he also was not saying was that we should not learn from each other. However, the view that ‘western is better’ so lets just transplant specific western ways of doing things and expect them to function in the same way – is not going to work.
Let me try to conclude this somehow. Someone who is a Christian should, you would think, take the view that how language shapes the way that people think about things, do things and relate to each other should be accepted. Why is that? Well, the reason of course is that Christians believe that language itself has divine origins (see below). I was reading recently an apologist for Christian belief arguing that the language groups (or families) in the world are evidence for the existence of God. I did not get his meaning at first. Eventually I worked out that what he was saying is that if languages had just evolved from grunts and so on then what we would have now would be something very different from the specific and limited number of language groups that we have.
In other words he was saying that God did actually give different peoples different languages (see the story of the Tower of Babel in Genesis Chapter 11 vs 1-9).
So, if Christians believe that the language groups have divine origins then they should ‘respect’ someone else’s language and the way it influences the way that particular society works. (By and large I think that from my observations most western Christians here do – it was certainly the general attitude of most of the early Scottish missionaries).
Chichewa (and what as I understand it has in common with other Bantu languages) has a very interesting structure. I cannot express it elegantly as it was so expressed in the introduction to an early book on the language. However, I think the meaning he was conveying was that it has a subtle, sophisticated, elegant manner by which it holds together. It certainly seems to contradict some racist assertions I have occasionally heard.
I am not a language person at all but it does seem to me to be very interesting as a kind of puzzle when as you get to know the rules and how to put the component parts together you can express more. I also mean you can express things that don’t tend to be expressed in the same way in English. Of course what I say is probably true of all or most languages. But the subtlety and the way it fits together should in itself I think be a reason to think highly of the language.
Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other. Genesis Ch 11 v 7
Sometimes a little bit of reading is a great idea when trying to lift one’s mind from the usual subjects that are occupying one’s thoughts or work. One danger I find from reading from the internet is I will search for the usual news sources or worse, be passive enough to scroll through the dross on facebook hoping to find a gem. An actual book is better I think as you are forced to pay attention to someone else’s thoughts or work and the temptation to ‘surf’ away to one’s usual hobby horses is not available.
Today I was reading a little bit from Persuasion by James Borg.
Chapter 2 on ‘Being a good listener’ got me thinking about the relationship between ‘being a good listener’ and speaking / understanding or understanding the local language. I, like most other western expats in Malawi am poor with the local language Chichewa. In mitigation I should say 1/ I am trying, 2/ I have been taking lessons and 3/ I am better than most expats here. However, point 3 is little to boast about. People who do not know Malawi would likely be astonished at how low the expectations are with regard to how much Chichewa a westerner can speak.
The book on Persuasion and the chapter on listening are not rocket science of course. However, it does have some value to consider how important listening is and how bad most people are at it. The damage that poor communication does to relationships must be related I thought to the damage done to ‘inter-cultural relationships’ by the misunderstandings that arise and the difficulty that expats have in understanding what people convey best in their own language.
This train of thought reminded me of something else that I read in the last few weeks and that iwas from a huge and interesting study pack on Chichewa. Something that caught my eye was the section for teachers on the ‘theoretical background’ subsection ‘Motivation’. The non rocket science (again) section that made an impression was, and I quote ‘Research has shown that students will learn a language more quickly and easily if they admire the people who speak it, have a desire to interact with those people, and for these reasons decide to study the language.’
Now, you do not have to be a rocket scientist (I’ve started so I’ll finish and be monotonous and repetitive), to work out where I am going with this argument.
Yes, I love Malawi and so do many other long-term expats and others who can be described as ‘Malawi people’ but one has to observe that in the grand scheme of things the interaction between Malawi and outsiders could be closer to functional and further from disfunctional. In fact, all countries need to trade and interact with each other for their own good and prosperity.
As expats – we need to think about our role in this.
I don’t know where to cut off the points I have in mind to make. What I have touched on here is a massive subject and maybe I can get further into it later. One preactical aspect influencing the length of this blog post is the Mountain Club of Malawi social this evening. So perhaps I should abruptly stop here.
One thing I should say however is that I might do some book reviews. Why do that, promote someone’s books, without signing up to Amazon’s thing where I can get a bit of commission if I put business there way?
So here is a link below. As I have not really reviewed this book and it is not on the specialised subject of this blog I am sure nothing will come of it. However, I thought I’d try this link to Amazon just to see if I can get it to work for future possibilities perhaps more especially regarding Malawi related books.
Eric brought in some old bank notes yesterday. It was another short trip down memory lane as this is what money looked like when I was growing up.
I was was impressed at the quality of the paper after all these years, it is nice to see the depiction of The Lake and also the tea growing beneath Mulanje Mountain.. I think that you can see the years 1982 and 1983.
On the day of the arrival in Malawi of some of his relatives I thought it would be worth looking at one of the ‘big four’ (or five) Scottish missionaries in the history of Malawi. Of course, naming the most important missionaries is quite a subjective task. I look forward to encountering some alternative, and perhaps better informed opinions, in due course.
The ‘big four’ that I am thinking of are David Livingstone (of course), Dr Robert Laws of Livingstonia and Scott and Hetherwick of Blantyre.
The division among white incomers that I want to suggest considering is something that goes right back to David Livingstone himself. Famously, David Livingstone got on very well with his African companions and hosts but had a somewhat more difficult relationship with his later European companions. In fact in the very early days he wanted to get as far away from ‘The Cape’ (South Africa) as possible so that he could meet African people untouched by the kind of relationship that was brewing between the Boers and the local people there. The worst story was where local people told him that Boers were shooting black children for fun. So incredible did he find this that is was not until culprits themselves told him the same thing that he believed that it must be true.
While noting that the above is an extreme example it is clear from the early days that the Scottish missionaries wished to avoid the ‘Cape model’. DC Scott was a great believer in ‘African Christianity’ being worked out by the local people rather than European Christianity and European civilisation being transplanted onto a different society. He had great confidence that an indigenous African Christian civilisation would emerge. Bring the bible, preach the gospel, introduce modern medicine, education and technical skills and then let Africa work out it’s own civilisation was the thinking. After building St Michael’s church in Blantyre DC Scott would not build other church buildings outside the mission station because the churches must come from within the hearts of the local people he argued. In fact, once the first converts were made Christianity spread throughout the land as a result of African evangelists.
It should be clear therefore that this view of the prominent Scottish missionaries would bring them into conflict with the more ‘paternal’ (at best) colonial authorities. The tradition continued for a long time as Scottish missionaries were also part of the struggle for independence as they had earlier been involved in the struggle for protection (from slavery and the Portuguese). Alexander Hetherwick, as DC Scott’s assistant and successor as head of Blantyre Mission was very much within this tradition.
The alternative to these men and others was a quite different attitude that came from some (though perhaps not all) of those in the colonial authorities. Harry Johnston was an interesting character whose writing clearly shows him to be irritated with the missionaries. However, it is quite amusing to read his begrudging praise for the missionaries and their achievements. The facts regarding the changes were inescapable. Malawi’s history (the facts) have a way of forcing people to nuance their pre-conceived prejudices. This is true whether we are talking about people who think the British Empire was ‘a jolly good thing’ or those who think that every missionary or colonial influence is oppression and a sub-version of local culture. What I find interesting about the views of serious people who look at Malawi’s history is the consensus of opinion among them rather than the division – and this is because that consensus is coming from observers with different backgrounds and beliefs (Christian / secular / right-wing / left / European / African). Of course, if you want a simplistic cartoon version of history that fits in with your preconceived ideas, unburdened by knowledge…then that is available from many opinionated and vocal sources.
Returning however to the very real differences in attitude between white people here it is informative to look at some examples of what happened when there was trouble between local people and the colonial authorities. At the time of the Chilembwe Uprising the authorities blamed the Scottish missionaries for educating the people. The Scottish missions believed in primary, secondary and further (tertiary) education (as well as practical training) while others thought that the education should be primary school only. Scott I think indicated his irritation with some of the new ‘aloof’ doctors by asking rhetorically why they come here if they don’t like (or respect) the local people.
One of the indicators, that in fact goes back to David Livingstone himself, was how well white people got on with other whites and how well they got on with Africans. David Livingstone had a famously difficult relationship with other European companions but was well liked across vast areas of the continent. The relationships of those other early missionaries who followed him I think also parallels this kind of thing. We should remember that many of these early Scottish missionaries were rebels within the system or perhaps did not want to fit in with society back ‘home’. The most spectacular example of this was DC Scott secretly building St Michael’s church while keep the whole thing secret from his bosses on the Mission Board in Edinburgh.
Alexander Hetherwick says about this “Scott had no previous knowledge of architecture or building construction. He had never seen a brick made or laid. He began with no definite plan. The present writer remembers being shown, as he passed through Blantyre on his way home for first furlough, a few geometrical figures which he was told was the scheme or “theme” of the proposed church–three cubes forming the nave, a half-cube each forming the two transepts and chancel. …each difficult and delicate detail was… laid without mortar, and then noting the result from the ground before laying the courses with lime” Romance of Blantyre, 1931, p. 77).
In keeping this secret Scott was of course not neglecting his duties – he was after all translating the bible at the same time.
We like to think that those old Victorian and colonial times were so different to now. However, I find it interesting to look at those differences of opinions then observe what happens today.
Returning now to the title of this post – Alexander Hetherwick. Hetherwick was very much in that first (but increasingly minority among whites) tradition that was set by David Livingstone himself. This country is the responsibility of the local people. The role of the missionaries and those other Europeans who followed them was not to impose European civilisation onto a different society and rule over it. Instead, the missionaries have a temporary role which involves translating the bible and following the introduction of Christianity, modern education and medicine; to let Africa take responsibility and work out their own African Christian civilisation.
My reading and study is not so extensive and deep that I have the facts of Hetherwick’s life at my fingertips. Instead, what I write about these missionaries is the impression I have built up from reading from various books and sources and talking to local historians and of course what I learned from my father who was an expert Chichewa speaker and minister in local congregations. It is also infomed somewhat by my own experience of modern day divisions and misunderstanding as well as different approaches to ‘development’. It should be mentioned that DC Scott’s vision was, I think, ultimately defeated by other whites and the years between those early days and now were characterised by aloof whites and ‘development’ ideas that are not the same as Livingstone’s thinking on ‘legitimate commerce’ or DC Scott’s thinking about letting Africa work out it’s own civilasation. ‘What went wrong’ with African / European relations would be an interesting study after considering how things started. However, how things started has clearly set a tone which has by no means disappeared.
As I say, Hetherwick fell within that tradition initiated by Livingstone and carried on in Blantyre by Scott. Let me quote from another source.
Andrew C Ross
Alexander Hetherwick was a Church of Scotland missionary in Malawi. He graduated from Aberdeen University, the best mathematician of his class. He turned away from an academic career and trained for the Church of Scotland ministry. In 1885 he was ordained for missionary service with the Blantyre mission in Malawi, where D. C. Scott sent him to open up new work among hitherto hostile groups beneath the Zomba plateau. Although very different temperamentally from Scott, Hetherwick soon became Scott’s principal assistant and succeeded him as head of the mission in 1898. Hetherwick was an able linguist and chaired the committee that produced the complete Nyanja Bible, which was used until the late 1970s in Malawi, Zambia, and parts of Mozambique. Following in Scott’s footsteps, he never flinched from challenging the colonial authorities over African rights and served as representative of those interests in the legislative council of the Protectorate from 1908 to 1913 and again from 1922 to 1925. His speeches before the government commission of enquiry into the John Chilembwe rebellion of 1915 were, for the time, a startling insistence on the oneness of humanity transcending racial difference. Along with Robert Laws, he was one of the main architects of the autonomous Church of Central Africa Presbyterian, which was inaugurated in 1924.
There is a lot more that informed church historians can tell us and I recommend as a starter reading ‘Blantyre Mission and the Making of Modern Malawi’ by Andrew C. Ross. However, today those African presbyterians who are aware of the arrival this afternoon of relatives of Alexander Hetherwick consider that fact a big deal. Sadly, many other people will just give a blank look if informed of the same information.
I have found that Alexander Hetherwick’s biography is available but on the US and not on the UK Amazon website. The author of the biography with a long title ‘A Prince of Missionaries : The Rev Alexander Hetherwick of Blantyre, Central Africa’ is W P Livingstone. W P Livingstone’s biography of Dr Robert Laws is one I have read and that book left me with a lasting impression of the extraordinary story that is the dawn of Christianity and the end of the long night of slavery in this land.
I was chatting to Eric about his background and he mentioned an ‘old’ book called ‘The Warm Heart of Africa’ which contains a couple of pictures from his wedding. Noticing my interest he decided to bring it in the next day. In fact the book is not that old, it is from 1984, three years after I left Malawi and twenty seven before I returned.
Keeping in mind that this blog post is really, quite apart from being of some interest to some readers here also a/ a book review and b/ free advertising for the author / publisher – the photos here should really be covered by the equivalent of ‘fair use’ with regard to copyright law. I cannot help noticing that various people and organisations have copied my photos from this blog without giving any acknowledgement to me or this blog.. However, if the author or publisher don’t like this free advertising that I am providing them with, then they should just get in touch and I’ll take this post down.
Anyway, according to Eric this book was commissioned by Dr. H. Kamuzu Banda and he, the president, selected the photos. I found it interesting to read the Forward. Only a few weeks ago I had the letter that he wrote in 1964 to all of the British Civil Servants who were in place at the end of the colonial period and at the dawn of independence.
As well as seeing Eric’s wedding photo the book was of interest to me as there are some pictures of sights that are very familiar to me from my childhood, but are of places that now look different. The main example of this is Mulunguzi Dam, but nearby Ku Chawe Inn also has changed.
There are other beautiful photos from Zomba Plateau in the book but it that is one page of two with Mulunguzi Dam in the book that is very different to what a picture taken now will show. I do have old family photos from Mulunguzi Dam and I’d like to put them up some time. In fact there are numerous old photos I would like to revive including one or two I was given yesterday by an old family friend who is briefly visiting Malawi. The picture is from the 1970′s and is taken outside of Thuchila Hut on Mulanje Mountain.
On the subject of family photos let’s return to Eric. I decided to take a close photo of the commentary on the photo as that is important for making sense of the man with the kudu horn.
EDIT: It occurred to me as I wrote the post yesterday that if I am writing a book review I’d be as well entering a link in case a reader wants to buy the book… As and when my blogging improves I will learn how to make the link (below) look more aesthetically pleasing to the eye.
<a href="Malawi: The Warm Heart of Africa” target=”_blank”>
Today has been cold, windy and overcast in Blantyre. The warm and sunny weather may well have continued if it were not for yesterdays post.
After a long hard winter I am today beginning to feel as though it is beginning to warm up. In town this morning, I mean well before mid-day, I had that feeling of a warm sunny pleasant morning. You could feel warm at anytime of course – but earlier on in the month it would require thick trousers, a jumper and even socks. Today, wearing short sleeves, sandals and shorts gives that warm (only just) but fresh and sunny feel.
Now we can look forward to slowly but unevenly rising temperatures as we approach October and November. My opinion is that truly oppressively hot days, even then, are rare (of course it is different at lower altitudes like in the Shire Valley). Then it is all the fun of the rainy reason with great tropical thunderstorm spectaculars. All in all, I think that the climate up here in the Shire Highlands is pretty good.
I received a nice comment on the blog today. Maybe I should write more. I see that the reading stats are quite steady despite the scarcity of posts these days. At the Mountain Club Social on Saturday night two people commented with surprise on my presence. They didn’t think I was in Malawi anymore and accused me of hiding.
The last house I lived in during my childhood in Malawi is being converted into a radio station. Next to the Blantyre Synod offices this radio station will begin broadcasting, for Blantyre Synod, to the whole of the Southern Region of Malawi.Blantyre Synod’s geographical area is basically the Southern Region of Malawi and is, as everyone who knows Malawi’s history will understand, the same as the geographical area covered by the old Church of Scotland Mission. The rationale for a radio station for the denomination can be understood with a few simple, and striking, facts. These facts are quite different from the normal situation for a church denomination in the west. The CCAP (of which Blantyre Synod is a component part) is one of the few denominations that fully trains it’s ministers in theological college before ordaining them. The cost in money and time for the training of a minister is quite high and this has an important effect in a poor country. So, relative to the number of members (and congregations), the number of ministers is very small. Blantyre Synod has well over a million members but only about 185 ministers actively serving in congregations together with the numerous ‘prayer houses’ attached to full church congregations. Prayer houses are like individual church congregations that meet on a Sunday and are like daughter church congregations that may become full congregations in time. Blantyre Synod has about 600 churches and 700 prayer houses. This means that each Sunday about 450 churches, not to mention prayer houses, have no minister with them at their service. Bear in mind also that many larger congregations have more than one service on a Sunday, including English language services in urban areas.
From this it should be clear that the burden on individual ministers is quite high. Elders of the church have to take up the responsibility of preaching and much else. While in Scotland and elsewhere the minister may be expected to do much of the work, in Malawi this is practically impossible and the burden of leadership and responsibility falls heavily on the elders. I do remember my father saying (he being a fluent and expert Chichewa speaker), that some of the best, deepest and most profound sermons he had heard came from almost completely uneducated Malawian elders. More recently I remember the Dutch minister, Rev Lieuwe Schaafsma (himself a fluent Chichewa speaker), saying something very similar. I mention the views of these expats because you sometimes hear the opposite from western visitors, so I am keen to counter with the views of outsiders who know the language. Never-the-less, despite the good things that can be said about elders with varying degrees of training, there is an understandable feeling that those who are theologically qualified should be enabled to reach the whole of the flock. This is where the need for a radio station comes in.
Most Malawians have access to radios. Even if each individual or household does not have one people can listen together. There are many influences arriving in Malawi. Understandably the CCAP as a whole, and Blantyre Synod as part of the CCAP, wish to keep the bible at the forefront of people’s understanding of how to view a rapidly changing world with a growing cacophony of new voices.
At the time of writing the Blantyre Synod website has an interview with the Deputy General Secretary, Rev Nyekanyeka, on the new radio station.
Daniel’s first holiday was on Zomba Plateau last weekend (middle of October).
This blog post is mainly for the benefit of grandparents and uncles and aunts etc. I have not made much effort to write anything that I think might be interesting for people wanting to read about Malawi.
These last three pictures were in Ku Chawe Inn, just in case anyone is wondering what the Zomba Plateau connection is.